EV Components and What They Do

These are typical major components for a microcar or scooter conversion, what they are for, and some variations you might consider:

EV Scooter (and Car) components
EV Scooter (and Car) components
Battery Cell (one of many pictured)Connected in series and parallel to provide power for the motor. Depending on your goals you may need hundreds of cells. Cells connected are a “battery pack”.You can make your own battery or purchase a pre-built pack that will save time (and maybe even be cheaper). For a scooter you would use smaller Li-ion cells which pack more power in a smaller footprint. You can choose new cells, or used cells to save money. Cells have performance characteristics that may be important to meet your goals
Battery ChargerCharges the cells via the BMS. To save space you should consider an external chargerSome chargers can charge faster (at a higher amperage) than others, and if you want to use the public charging network you may need a different type of connector (J1772 in the US)
Battery Management SystemManages the charge of the cell to preserve the life of the cellsBMS’s are specific to the number of cells and battery chemistry. Pre-built packs have the BMS already incorporated.
ControllerDetermines how the EV motor reacts within the limits of the parameters you set in the controller’s softwareThere are many kinds and sizes. Stick with well-known brands for support, equipped with Bluetooth for connectivity.
Hub MotorThe actual moving part that propels the scooterI suggest a hub motor because of space constraints (there are also geared mid-drive motors, but they require more room). You must choose the proper size for your build.
ThrottleYou know exactly what this is! In the EV world they are called Throttle Position Sensors (“TPS Switches”), potentiometers or “pot-boxes”There’s a variety of throttles available in different formats depending on your design goals
DC to DC converterAllows you run 12v electrics such as lights and horn from the battery packI suggest an “isolated” converter as they are safer (but more expensive) than non-isolated converters, and minimize changes to existing wiring.